The following information is a summary of one part of a University of Florida Graduate Research Project
on the Environmental Causes of Learning Disabilities. Information below provides scientific documentation
on why the United States should follow European countries and remove fluoride from public water supplies.
The full project can be seen in entirety at

Water Fluoridation Increases Rate of Attention Deficit Disorder Among Children in United States

SOURCE: Enviornmental Health, Vol. 14:17, February 27, 2015
Original journal article can be accessed online at

Children living in cities with higher fluoridation rates were found to have higher rates of Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). This was the conclusion of a study conducted using statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and water fluoridation usage in public water systems between 1992 and 2008. While previous animal based studies have shown that fluoride exposure during pregnancy can harm brain neurodevelopment - this is the first study to show harmful effects among children exposed to city water containing recommended fluoride levels. In their introduction, scientists state that ADHD has been linked with environmental factors including PCB's (used in caulking and cement block mortar in homes built in the 1960's & 70's), nicotine, mercury, arsenic, food additives and colouring, pesticides and lead. They stated that fluoride (a known neurotoxic compound) has received virtually no research in this area. While most countries in Europe have banned fluoride over the past decades, the U.S. is one of the most widely fluoridated contries in the world, with approximately 74.6% of the population on fluoridated public water systems. Fluoride is a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production and also forms during the extraction of uranium from phosphate rock for use in weapons and nuclear power plants. As of 2011, 11% of 4-17 year olds in the U.S. had a diagnosis of ADHD. Children exposed to water fluoridated at 1.2 - 3 mg/L (slightly above recommended levels) had slower reaction time and poor visuospatial organization that could interfere with attention, reading and writing. In the current study, scientists found that each 1% increase in artificial fluoridation prevalence in 1992 was associated with 67,000 to 131,000 additional ADHD diagnoses from 2003 to 2011. Increased ADHD was also correllated with state use of fluoride.

Ashley J Malin, Christine Till
Department of Psychologoy, York University, Toronto, Canada


Water Fluoridation Linked to Lower IQ Scores

SOURCE: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb, 2011, Vol 186(2):1942
Original journal article can be accessed online at

In a study of 331 children ages 7 to 14, it was found that there was a .59 point decrease in IQ for each increase 1 part per million increase in water fluoride. The study was designed to answer the question of whether fluoride exposure levels of 3.0 mg/Liter was adversely associated with children's intelligence. Although recommended fluoride levels in public water in the U.S. is from .7 to 1.2 mg/Liter, children often receive a much higher dose of fluoride from toothpastes, mouthwash and canned drinks. Also, some U.S. water supplies naturally contain fluoride of over 10 ppm (1 ppm = 1 mg/Liter).

Center for Endemic Disease Control
Chinese Center for Disease Control & Prevention
Harbin Medical University, Heilongjiang, China


Neurological Effects of Fluoride in Animals

SOURCE: Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 17(2), 1995


Sodium Fluoride is currently added to the majority of municipal water systems in the U.S. to prevent cavities in children. Its use has risen rapidly since the 1950’s. Sodium Fluoride is also registered with the EPA as a rat poison, although advocates say its use in low levels in water poses no adverse health concerns. There has been considerable research done on fluoride regarding cancer, birth defects, and risks to the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary systems, however, very little has been done on its neurological effects.

First Study to Find Neurological Deficits After Fluoride Exposure

Chinese investigations have shown levels of fluoride in drinking water at levels of 3-11 ppm affect the nervous system without first causing physical malformations. Another Chinese study found Attention Deficit Disorders in adult humans if sublingual drops containing 100 ppm of sodium fluoride were administered. Sources of fluoride exposure include processed beverages, toothpastes, mouth rinses, dietary supplements and food. This is an exposure level potentially relevant to humans because toothpastes contain 1000 to 1500 ppm fluoride and mouthrinses contain 230-900 ppm fluoride.

In the 1995 article appearing in the journal Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Dr. Phyllis J Mullenix states,

"Still unexplored, however, is the possibility that fluoride exposure is linked with subtle brain dysfunction. This is the first study to demonstrate that central nervous system output is vulnerable to fluoride, that the effects on behavior depend on the age at exposure and that fluoride accumulates in brain tissues. Of course behaviors per se do not extrapolate, but a generic behavioral pattern disruption as found in this rat study can be indicative of potential for motor dysfunction, IQ deficits and/or learning disabilities in humans. Substances that accumulate in brain tissue potentiate concerns about neurotoxic risk."

Dr. Phyllis J. Mullenix
Toxicology Department, Forsyth Research Institute, Boston, MA
RESEARCH TITLE: Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats